Shariah Law, Islamic State & Jihad
Taught by Shaykh Akram Nadwi
(8 Feb 2014 at Queen Mary University, London)
THESE ARE JUST PERSONAL NOTES AND HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED BY SHAYKH AKRAM.
The shaykh began the topic by highlighting how much he respects and admires Imam Hasan al-Banna Shaheed, Maulana Maududi and Sayyid Qutb Shaheed. Nadwatul Ulama movement actually pioneered the translation of Maulana Maududis works to Arabic which then had a big impact on Sayyid Qutb Shaheed. Shaykh Akram respects the efforts of these great thinkers, he has read their works many times, memorised parts of Milestones and he mentioned how he has been moved to tears reading some of their writings. The purpose of mentioning this was so that people do not think he is speaking from biased perspective when criticising.
It is important to unite despite of differences. The purpose of teaching is not to make everyone follow you. [Shaykh Akram regularly mentions this in his seminars emphasising that if someone feels they have a better argument then they can discuss, but people should think properly and then either agree knowingly or disagree knowingly].
Maulana Maududi, Imam Hasan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb were the first to present political Islam as a focus Read more…
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr said, “A man came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, ‘I have come to make you a pledge that I will do hijra although I have left my parents in tears.’ The Prophet said, ‘Go back to them and make them laugh as you made them cry.’”
LESSONS FROM HADITH
(notes from a lesson by Ustadh Abu Eesa Niamatullah)
[THESE ARE JUST PERSONAL NOTES AND HAVE NOT BEEN REVIEWED BY THE SHAYKH.]
Of the benefits of this hadith is that the Prophet salallahu ‘alayhi wasalam has clearly shown the importance of prioritisation. Hijrah is one thing very important, yet recognise that the priority of looking after your parents and being in their service is greater. The latter is a greater obligation. Here we recognise that the fard ul-kiffayah (the communal obligation) has been superseded by the fard ul-ayn (the individual obligation)- the obligation of looking after the parents.
This establishes a principle in the deen for us, often we are caught between two different situations and decisions, one should not just say this is the easier one, or this is the harder one, or this one makes more sense to me so I will do that. No. It does not go by your sense, or easy or harder one; the decision goes by what is more obligatory, what is more correct taking into consideration the benefits and harms according to Islamic principles of the shari’ah not ones own opinions.
Another benefit of this hadith is that if you upset someone which is really easy to do, then the remedy for this is to go back and make them laugh. That is a form of sadaqah (charity), go back and make some effort to make them smile again. By doing this you can try and recover some of the harm that you have already caused.
This leads us to the third benefit which is a very interesting point that the ulama mention. This hadith establishes like a system that if you do something wrong, if you cause someone some kind of problem, if you make a mistake then you should go and deal with it. It doesn’t matter what level it is on or what the situation is, the principle is the same. Like here in this hadith you made them cry so go back and make them laugh. Likewise, if you did gheeba (backbiting) of someone, spoke bad about someone, now go and when he is not there speak good about that person, praise him and make dua for him when no one is around- when it is only you and Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala make dua for him. If you do a sin then find out what expiates it. If you make a mistake, give some sadaqah (charity). This principle is established from this hadith. If you do something wrong then fix it, this is Islam.
Now a few points about hijrah because hijrah throughout history has always been a point of discussion and dispute regarding the issues surrounding it. Therefore lets look at it a bit more closely to try and understand what it is and what is the Islamic ruling.
What is hijrah?
What is hijrah? First of all we need to understand that Read more…
Muslims today have begun to awaken from their stupor towards the realisation that Islam is their solution, and the entire world shakes from the Ummah’s revival. What remains are the physical obstacles imposed by the regimes presiding over the Muslims by the Imperialists, and the lack of understanding and clarity of the Islamic concepts that still pervades the Muslim mentality. The feeling of belonging to a single Muslim Ummah has emerged to replace the national and tribal affiliations conjured by the Kuffar. Also, Islam as a political creed has slowly managed to take firm roots in the minds of the Muslims. In spite of the awakening process, much ambiguity still surrounds the ideas and concepts of Islam. For the Muslims to revive, they must possess a clear, well-defined picture of the ideas and concepts, and the necessity of defining the Islamic terminology becomes vital to the revival of the Ummah.
The Definition of the Word Ummah
The word Ummah usually means Read more…
Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar, a founder of the Khilafat movement said about the Khilafah:
“The ruler of Turkey was the Khalifah or successor of the Prophet and Amir -ul- Mu’mineen or chief of the believers and the Khilafah is as essentially our religious concern as the Quran or the Sunnah of the Prophet.” [Johar, Mohammed Ali, My Life a Fragment pg.41]
Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad wrote a book in 1920 called ‘The Issue of Khilafat’, he stated:
“Without the Khilafah the existence of Islam is not possible, the Muslims of India with all their effort and power need to work for this.”
In the same book page 176 Maulana Azad said:
“There are two types of ahkam shariah, the first is related to the individual like the commands and prohibitions, the fara’id (obligations) and wajibat in order to perfect oneself. The second is not related to the individual but is related to the Ummah, nation, collective obligations and state politics like the conquering of lands, political and economic laws.”
The following are some key points from a declaration made at a conference held for the UIema in India on 5th & 6th April 1920 Read more…
The following is the Fatwa of Sheikh ul Hind, Maulana Mahmood Hasan who was imprisoned by the British in Malta for 3 years due to him sticking to the truth and not disowning the Uthmani Khilafah. Shaikhul Hind and his student Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madni (later klnown as Shaikhul Islam) were arrested by the Sharif Hussein in Hijaz (Makkah) on 23rd Safar 1335 (19th December 1916). They were sent to Malta via Cairo by a ship on 29th Rabbi al-Thanni 1335 (22nd February 1917) and clamped in the prison by the British for 3 years and 4 months. They were released and reached Bombay on 8th June 1920 (21st Ramadhan 1338). This time of returning from Malta, synchronized with the period of the beginning of the Khilafat Movement in India.
Sheikh ul Hind was the head of Dar al ulum Deoband at his time, he directly supported the Khilafah and worked hard for its maintenance. He had met the Wali (governor) of the Khilafah in Makkah and the assistants of the Khalifah. The Wali gave documents to the Sheikh to help in the struggle of Muslims of India against the tyranny of the British. The foremost of these documents was an appeal from the Wali to the Muslims of India. In his appeal, the Wali of Makkah praised Sheikh ul Hind for launching the struggle against the colonial British rule and also exhorted Muslims of India to extend their full support. He also assured the Muslims of India of material support from this movement from the Khilafah. The document written by the Governor of Makkah is known in history as Ghalib Namah. After performing Hajj in 1334 AH (1915 CE), the Sheikh also met with Anwar Pasha and Jamal Pasha, who were officials of the Khilafah. Anwar Pasha too wrote a letter of appeal for the Muslims of India, appreciating their constant struggle against the British tyranny. The wording of the letter was similar to the Ghalib Namah, assuring the material support of the Uthmani Khilafah to the Muslims of India in their struggle against the British.
The letter also exhorted all citizens and employees of the Uthmani Khilafah to have full confidence in Sheikh ul Hind and prove men and material support to his movement. Copies of these letters were made, smuggled to India in the face of all the challenges posed by the British intelligence services and later distributed in the whole of Yaghestan. Most of the Ulema in India stood up for the issue of the Khilafah in the beginning of the 20th Century, unfortunately today it has become forgotten by many. The text of the Fatwa demonstrates how Sheikh ul Hind used to see the duty of Khilafah and his view towards co-operating with the colonialists. Read more…
“Allah has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion, that which He has chosen for them. And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the Fasiqun(rebellious, disobedient)” (TMQ 24:55)
The worst type of colonialism is intellectual. Armies can be repelled, invasions can be endured, and material setbacks can be absorbed as long as the Ummah maintains its connection with its ideological base i.e. the Islamic aqeedah. For a nation that believes in an eternal afterlife, of what concern are the temporal comforts of this life? Read more…
It has become well-known of Christians that they distinguish between religion and politics by their well-known dictum “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s and unto God what is God’s”. It is thus as though religion has no relationship with politics and politics has no connection with religion. This worthless concept has slowly advanced to its ugliest form in recent times in the name of “secularism” (al-’almaniyah) or “secularisation” Read more…